First performed by the Scottish Chamber Orchestra conducted by Joseph Swenson with Christian Lindberg as soloist in St. Andrews 18 February 1998.
‘Kaea’: a wooden Maori war trumpet, somewhere between four and six feet in length with a diameter of about one inch at the blowing end widening to about eight inches at the bell. It was made of hollow sections of wood lashed together with a flax cord. Wedges of wood were glued to the bell to amplify and direct the sound. Inside the bell end it was fitted with a tongue or vibrating reed. The sound was loud and booming and was used to raise the alarm in times of danger or to terrify the enemy by shouting curses through it.